International Journal of Advance Agricultural Research
ISSN: 2053-1265
Vol. 5(2), pp. 23-28, February 2017



Serological detection of avian influenza virus (H5N2) antibody among domestic avian species in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria

Mohammed Yusuf Zanna*, Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda, Yasheruram Muhammad Shettima, Meshach Maunta Maina, Mustapha Bala Abubakar, Ali Andrew, Tasiu Mallam Hamisu and Saka Saheed Baba

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: myzanna6834@gmail.com.

Received 18 December, 2016; Received in revised form 13 January, 2017; Accepted 17 January, 2017.

Abstract


Keywords:
Avian Influenza virus, Antibody (H5N2), Birds.


Avian influenza virus (H5N2) is one of the biggest threats for human and animal health worldwide. A seroprevalence study was conducted to investigate and determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in some selected species of birds viz: broilers, layers, village chicken, geese and ducks in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council of Borno State. A total of 284 serum samples were collected from apparently healthy birds from two different poultry slaughter slabs and various household within the metropolis. An indirect commercial ELISA kit was used to detect antibody against H5N2 among the selected birds species. The results obtained show an overall prevalence rate of (3.5%). Layers had the highest rate with (6.3%) followed by ducks (5.0%), village chicken (4.3%) and broilers (3.8%), respectively. In terms of sex distribution, females had relatively slightly higher prevalence rate (3.6%) than males (3.4%). While in terms age distribution, the ages at which most of the birds were affected are: broilers (8 weeks), layers (12 months), village chicken (25 months), ducks (26 months), geese (27 months) and turkey (28 months). Avian influenza affects all ages of birds; however in this study, it mostly affected birds that are within the age-bracket of 25 months and above (4.9%), followed by 11 weeks ≤ 24 months (4.1%) and the least affected were 8 ≤ 10 weeks (2.6%). With regards to management system practice, the intensive system had the highest rate (5.3%), followed by semi-intensive system (2.9%) and the free range system (2.3%). The study confirmed the presence of H5N2 antibody among birds sampled in Maiduguri. Thus an effective control and preventive strategy including proper vaccination programme and strict sero-monitoring of flocks should be instituted against avian influenza virus.

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