International Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research
ISSN: 2053-1818
Vol. 7(3), pp. 24-29, April, 2019

Antibiogram profiling and cost effectiveness of urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity in Yenegoa, Nigeria

Arikekpar Ibemologi* and Alade Tolulupe

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, P. M. B. 071, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:

Received 26 October, 2018; Received in revised form 16 January, 2019; Accepted 21 January, 2019.


Urinary tract infection, Uropathogen, Cost-effectiveness, Antibiotics susceptibility.

The study was carried out in the Medical Laboratory of the Federal Medical Centre, Yenegoa, Bayelsa State between January - September 2010 with the aim to ascertain the antibiogram profile, prevalence rate of bacterial urinary tract infection in Bayelsa State and the cost effectiveness of such urine diagnosis. A total of 610 urine samples collected from adult patients were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard microbiological techniques. Results obtained show that 467(211 males and 256 females) had significant bacterial growth of 76.6% and are statistically significant (p<0.05). A total of 528 strains of some common bacterial uropathogens were isolated, 238 from males (45.1%) while females had 290 strains (59.9%). Escherichia coli was the predominant uropathogen (41.9%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.6%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (13.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.4%), Proteus mirabilis (5.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%). The percentage susceptibility of all isolates to the antimicrobial agents were 66.7% for ciprofloxacin, 51% for nitrofurantoin, 43.2% for erythromycin, 40.3% for colistin, 39.2% for cotrimoxazole, 37% for nalixidic acid, 30% for gentamycin, 28% for streptomycin, 21% for tetracycline and 14.6% for amoxicillin. Comparing the 76.6% prevalence rate in this study to that obtained from the Bayelsa State Ministry of Health in 2008 and 2009 which was 67.5 and 75.2%, respectively indicates a rising trend in urinary tract infection (UTIs). The average cost of urine diagnosis was 700 naira/patient and the estimated cost for these 610 patients was 427,000 naira, which is more cost effective than empirical treatment because it could prevent waste of more resources due to revisits, re-evaluation and re-treatment of patients. Thus antibiotic susceptibility profiling is best based on the antibiogram of individual patient.

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