International Journal of Food Research
ISSN: 2056-9734
Vol. 6(3), pp. 41-48, August 2019
doi.org/10.33500/ijfr.2019.06.005



Fungal contamination of Gabou Hamni sold in the markets of Niamey, Niger

Maman Moustapha RABIOU1*, Chaibou YAOU1, Abdelkader ALIO SANDA2, Mamadou LEWAMY1,
Idrissa MOUSSA1, Haoua SABO1 and Hassimi SADOU1

1Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Abdou Moumouni, BP: 10662, Niamey, Niger.
2Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Abdou Moumouni, BP: 10662, Niamey, Niger.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rabiouitina@gmail.com.

Received 21 May, 2019; Received in revised form 02 July, 2019; Accepted 08 July, 2019.

Abstract


Keywords:
Gabou Hamni, Contamination, Sesame, Fungi, Yeast.


Gabou Hamni is a traditional condiment commonly used in Niger. It is formulated from different roasted vegetative parts of onion and roasted sesame. This study was conducted to determine the density of fungi and yeasts in Gabou Hamni sold at the markets of Niamey and also to identify the species of fungi present. A total of 25 Gabou Hamni samples were analyzed, of which 23 of them were purchased and 2 of them were prepared in the laboratory. The results obtained reveal that all samples purchased were contaminated by fungi and 48% by yeasts. Among the two samples prepared, only one was contaminated by fungi, but none was contaminated by yeasts. The density of fungi and yeast ranged from 0.5×102 to 1.65×104 CFU/g. Eight percent of the samples had fungi and yeast densities that exceeded the standard set by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. Nine genus of fungi were isolated. The fungi species identified from these genera were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus glaucus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulens, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Rizopus stolonifer, Rizopus nigricans, Cunninghamella elegans, Absidia corymbifera, Phoma glomerata, Epicoccum purpurascens, Aureobasidium pullulans and Neosartorya fischeri. The presence of these microorganisms constitute health risk. Exposures to the open air on market shelves, the use of obsolete and rudimentary packaging are probably the major factors of contamination by yeasts and fungi.

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