International Journal of Modern Biological Research
ISSN: 2053-180X
Vol. 8(2), pp. 12-33, October 2020
doi.org/10.33500/ijmbr.2020.8.002



Ethnobotanical survey and anti-onchocercal activity of some medicinal plants used in Ngaoundere, Cameroon

Nveikoueing Francis1*, Koga Mang’Dobara1,3, Megnigueu Mimi Elodie1, Djedoubouyom Namé Élysée1,4,
Ndouwé Tissebé Menga Honoré5, Kouam Fogué Siméon2 and Ndjonka Dieudonné1.

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, P. O. Box 454 Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
2Department of Organic chemistry, University of Yaoundé 1, P. O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
3Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, University of Yaoundé 1, P. O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
4Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, Veterinary Research Laboratory, Wakwa Regional Center, P. O. Box 65 Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
5Department of Fundamental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, P. O. Box 317 Garoua, Cameroon.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: belngous.lacoste@yahoo.fr.

Received 28 July, 2020; Received in revised form 30 August, 2020; Accepted 04 September, 2020.

Abstract


Keywords:
Ethnobotanical survey, Medicinal plants, Phytochemical study, Anti-onchocercal activity, Onchocerca ochengi, Ngaoundere.


Filariasis are parasitic diseases from which belongs onchocerciasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus. Owing to the lack of cure against onchocerciasis, the present study was focused on the assessment and validation of the ethnomedicinal value of some medicinal plants claimed to have anti-filarial action. First by an ethnobotanical study conducted close to Ngaoundere traditional healers (38); followed by the chemically analysis of plants quoted; and finally by their in vitro screening on bovine filaria Onchocerca ochengi at limit relevant concentrations (300 µg/mL and 4 mg/mL) to the range of herbal drug’s doses locally prescribed. The mortality of worms was checked using MTT/Formazan colorimetric assay after 72 h of incubation at 37°C. It was found that, a total of 15 plant species from 10 families are reportedly being used against filariasis. Asteraceae family (50%) provided the largest species. The most frequently mentioned plants being Vernonia tonoreana (13.6) and Psidium guajava (2.63) the last one. Roots (31.58%), whole plant (28.95%) and leaves (26.32%) were reported as the dominant parts been used. The prominent methods of herbal preparation were trituration and boiling (26.32%). The most administration forms were swallowing (55.26%) and friction (23.68%). The inquired tribes mainly Podoko (52.63%) and Mboum (23.68%) used similar plants against filariasis. Phytochemical profiles of plant varied as a function of plant parts and/or extracting solvent. However, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and terpenoids were mostly observed. All the screened extracts exhibited 100% worms’ mortality at 4 mg/mL, but only P. guajava and V. tonoreana had the same effect at 300 µg/mL. This study provides scientific evidence of traditional use of plant to treat onchocerciasis. The scored data can be useful for further research in new drug’s development.

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