International Journal of Modern Biological Research
ISSN: 2053-180X
Vol. 9(2), pp. 25-36, September 2021
doi.org/10.33500/ijmbr.2020.9.003



Chromosomal aberrations and nuclear anomalies in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. caused by radon in water

Jasmin Adrovic1*, Izet Eminovic2, Stojko Vidovic3 and Feriz Adrovic1

1Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
2Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
3Faculty of Medicine, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: biolog@live.com.

Received 23 July, 2021; Received in revised form 14 August, 2021; Accepted 16 August, 2021.

Abstract


Keywords:
Allium cepa test, Radon in water, Chromosome aberrations, Nuclear anomalies, Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity .


In this study, the Allium biotest was used to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of radon activity concentrations in water, on meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. roots. To identify the biological effects of ionizing radiation, which come from the radioactive gas radon, it was necessary to take into account its physico-chemical properties, primarily considering its migratory possibilities. The chromosomes studied were taken from meristematic cells, whose normal cells have 16 (2n = 16) chromosomes, and are suitable lengths for detecting morphological changes. Meristematic cells of A. cepa L. root were treated with a series of 10 different radon activity concentrations in water, ranging from 100.62 to 1,006.25 Bq/L. From a wide range of observed chromosomal aberrations (CA) and nuclear changes, the highest frequency of occurrence was: polyploidy, sticky chromosomes, C-mitosis, bridges, micronuclei, irregular segregation, multipolarity, necrosis, apoptosis, binuclear cells. Trinuclear and tetranuclear cells, as well as stray chromosomes, were observed sporadically. In relation to the negative control, all applied radon activity concentrations in water led to statistically significant genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on meristematic cells of A. cepa L.

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