International Journal of Research in Environmental Studies
ISSN: 2059-1977
Vol. 5(1), pp. 18-35, May 2018



Climate change in Ethiopia: impacts, mitigation and adaptation

Haileab Zegeye*

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Debre Tabor University, P. O. Box 272, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: haileabzt@yahoo.com; haileabzegeye75@gmail.com.

Received 30 January, 2018; Received in revised form 11 April, 2018; Accepted 16 April, 2018.

Abstract


Keywords:
Adaptation, Climate change, Ethiopia, Mitigation, Vulnerability.


This review highlights climate change and its drivers, impacts, and mitigation and adaptation options in Ethiopia. Both climate variability and change have been occurring in Ethiopia. Evidences show that since 1960 the mean annual temperature of the country has risen by about 1.3°C, an average rate of 0.28°C per decade, and spatial and temporal rainfall variability has been increasing. As such, Ethiopia has been experiencing the impacts of both climate variability and change. Climate change has led to recurrent droughts and famines, flooding, expansion of desertification, loss of wetlands, loss of biodiversity, decline in agricultural production and productivity, shortage of water, and increased incidence of pests and diseases such as spread of cereal stemborers and malaria to higher elevation areas. On the other hand, Ethiopia has shown both conservation and policy responses to combat climate change. Protected area systems, afforestation and reforestation programmes, renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, ecological agriculture, flexible livestock production, homegardens and traditional agroforestry systems, harvesting and use/marketing of non-timber forest products and climate change education, are all feasible strategies for mitigating and adapting climate change. Indeed, there is a need to employ the right mix of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies prioritized in space and time so as to reduce vulnerability of biodiversity and humanity to the escalating impacts of climate change. To this end, capacity building should be a priority. Moreover, there is a need to collaborate with the international community to combat climate change, which is a global challenge.

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