Journal of Medicinal Plant and Herbal Therapy Research
ISSN: 2053-1826
Vol. 5(2), pp. 10-18, March 2017



Chemical profile of leaves and seeds of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth.

Osabor, V. N., Okonkwo, P. C. and Ikeuba, A. I.

Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: chiscilla@yahoo.com.

Received 01 January, 2017; Received in revised form 17 Febraury, 2017; Accepted 22 February, 2017.

Abstract


Keywords:
Proximate, Minerals, Anti-nutritional, Phytochemical.

The chemical profile of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth. (African oil bean) seeds and leaves were analyzed using standard analytical methods. The result of the proximate composition indicates the presence of crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate in the leaves and seeds. The macro-mineral composition showed that calcium has the highest value and magnesium the least in the leaves and seeds. Other minerals present include sodium, potassium and phosphorus. The micro-minerals showed the highest value for iron and lowest value for cobalt. Other micro-minerals determined are copper, zinc, manganese, cadmium for the leaves and seeds. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, polyphenols and reducing sugar in both water and petroleum ether extract of the plant. Quantitative analysis of the phytochemicals revealed that polyphenols have the highest value and the least value was obtained for saponins occurring in the water extract and petroleum extract of the leaves and seeds. Other phytochemicals found include flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and reducing sugar in the leaves and seeds. The anti-nutrients composition consists of phytate, tannin, hydrocyanide, oxalate for the leaves and seeds. The results obtained show that P. macrophylla Benth. is a good source of food and therapeutic agent which will be of use for food and pharmaceutical industries.

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